(i) How the animal gets food
In the wild, tigers mostly feed on larger and medium sized animals, with most studies indicating a preference for native ungulates averaging 90 kg (200 lb) at a minimum. Sambar, chital, barasingha, wild boar, gaur, nilgai and both water buffalo and domestic buffalo, in descending order of preference, are the tiger’s favoured prey in India. Sometimes, they also prey on other predators, including other large species such as leopards, pythons, sloth bears and crocodiles. In Siberia the main prey species are manchurian wapiti and wild boar (the two species comprising nearly 80% of the prey selected) followed by sika deer, moose, roe deer, and musk deer. In Sumatra, sambar, muntjac, wild boar, and malayan tapir are predominantly preyed upon. In the former Caspian tiger’s range, prey included saiga antelope, camels, caucasian wisent, yak, and wild horses. Like many predators, they are opportunistic and will eat much smaller prey, such as monkeys, peafowls, other largish, ground-based birds, hares, porcupines and fish.
Adult elephants are too large to serve as common prey, but conflicts between tigers and elephants, with the huge elephant typically dominating the predator, do sometimes take place. A case where a tiger killed an adult Indian Rhinoceros has been observed, although adult rhinoceros are often ignored as potential prey due to a combination of very large size, a short temper and very thick skin, which render them a laborious and very difficult kill. Young elephant and rhino calves are occasionally taken. Tigers also sometimes prey on domestic animals such as dogs, cattle, horses, and donkeys. These individuals are termed cattle-lifters or cattle-killers in contrast to typical game-killers.
(ii) How the animal protects itself from predators
A tiger protects itself by its teeth and sharp claws. In addition, its stripes act as camouflage to help it to blend into its surroundings. It also has the ability to swim or climb into a tree. It is also large, strong and agile.
(iii) Sleeping Habits
Tigers sleep a very long time, typically about 18 to 20 hours a day. Tigers sleep on rocks, in grass in their wild habitat, next to their prey or wherever they feel the need to rest. Tigers typically do not spend more energy than what’s needed, because if they spend more energy, they require more food. Tigers usually sleep after they make a kill and eat. Because a tiger can feed off of one large prey for a number of days, a tiger generally eats as much as he can and then rests or sleeps near the prey until ready to gorge again. Tigers rest by their prey to keep other predators from taking their food. Once a tiger eats all the prey, the tiger rests and sleeps. When he awakens, the tiger begins his search again for more food.